The effectiveness of a nurse-delivered breast health promotion program on breast cancer early detection behaviors

Anita Anita, Nelly Indrasari, Purwati Purwati, Ratna Aryani


Background: Reported in Lampung Province, the prevalence of breast cancer cases has increased from 0.02% in 2010 to 0.7% in 2013. There were 1.030 cases. Two, Districts with the largest cases of breast cancer are west Lampung  (10%) and Pringsewu (9.8%).

Purpose: To knowing the effectiveness of a nurse-delivered breast health promotion models on breast cancer early detection behaviors among women of childbearing period age.

Methods: A quantitative study, the population were women of childbearing period age, and samples comprise 120 participant divided in four groups in each group consist 30 participant. 90 participant as intervention group and 30 participant as control group.  Independent t test was used in data analysis.

Results: Shows there was no effect of education face to face with the booklet media and education face to face with the detection media cards, but there is a different result with education face to face with the combination of booklet and detection cards (p=0.004 mean difference= 0.767) on the behavior of early detection of breast cancer.

Conclusion: The health practitioners should provide booklets together with the provision detection card to carry out routinely in preventive efforts. The study also recommends further research on active networking efforts and the efforts of palliative care for those diagnosed with breast cancer.


Nursing; Health promotion program; Breast cancer; Early detection; Behaviors; Face to face; Booklet media; Detection media cards


Al-Rifai, R. H., & Loney, T. (2017). Factors Associated with a Lack of Knowledge of Performing Breast Self-Examination and Unawareness of Cervical Cancer Screening Services: Evidence from the 2015 Egypt Health Issues Survey. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 18(10), 2763.

American Cancer Society. (2016). Breast Cancer. Retrieved June 17, 2016. Retrieved from

Farid, N. D. N., Aziz, N. A., Al-Sadat, N., Jamaludin, M., & Dahlui, M. (2014). Clinical breast examination as the recommended breast cancer screening modality in a rural community in Malaysia; what are the factors that could enhance its uptake? PLoS ONE, 9(9), 1–7.

Ghoncheh, M., Pournamdar, Z., & Salehiniya, H. (2016). Incidence and mortality and epidemiology of breast cancer in the world. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 17(S3), 43-46.

Harmer, V. (2011). Breast awareness and screening. Nursing Times, 107(25), 21–23.

Husna, A., & Fahlevi, M. I. (2020). Implementation of SADARI in the early detection of breast cancer in young women high school of west Aceh regency. J-Kesmas: Jurnal Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat (The Indonesian Journal of Public Health), 7(1), 51-56.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2015). Global Cancer Facts & Figures. In Atlanta (3rd ed., pp. 1–64). IARC.

Kemppainen, V., Tossavainen, K., & Turunen, H. (2013). Nurses’ roles in health promotion practice: An integrative review. Health Promotion International, 28(4), 490–501.

Lampung Provincial Health Office. (2013). Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Lampung Tahun 2012. Lampung.

Meads, C., Ahmed, I., & Riley, R. D. (2012). A systematic review of breast cancer incidence risk prediction models with meta-analysis of their performance. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 132(2), 365–377.

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia. (2015). Data dan Informasi Kesehatan Situasi Penyakit Kanker. Kemenkes.

Momenimovahed, Z., & Salehiniya, H. (2019). Epidemiological characteristics of and risk factors for breast cancer in the world. Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy, 11, 151.

Özdemir, A. (2014). Determination of Breast Self-Examination Knowledge and Breast Self-Examination Practices among Women and Effects of Education on their Knowledge, 7(3).

Rantonen, J., Vehtari, A., Karppinen, J., Luoto, S., Viikari-Juntura, E., Hupli, M., Taimela, S. (2014). Face-to-face information combined with a booklet versus a booklet alone for treatment of mild low-back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 40(2), 156–166.

Schiller, Y., Schulte-Körne, G., Eberle-Sejari, R., Maier, B., & Allgaier, A. K. (2014). Increasing knowledge about depression in adolescents: Effects of an information booklet. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(1), 51–58.

Sun, Y. S., Zhao, Z., Yang, Z. N., Xu, F., Lu, H. J., Zhu, Z. Y., & Zhu, H. P. (2017). Risk factors and preventions of breast cancer. International journal of biological sciences, 13(11), 1387.

Sung, J. S., Stamler, S., Brooks, J., Kaplan, J., Huang, T., Dershaw, D. D., & Comstock, C. E. (2016). Breast cancers detected at screening MR imaging and mammography in patients at high risk: method of detection reflects tumor histopathologic results. Radiology, 280(3), 716-722.

Suwankhong D, Liamputtong P. (2018). Early detection of breast and barrier to screening programmes amongst Thai migrant Women in Australia: A qualitative Study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.DOI: 10.22034/APJCP.2018.19(4). 1089-1097

Wachira, J., Busakhala, A., Chite, F., Naanyu, V., Kisuya, J., Otieno, G., & Inui, T. (2017). Refining a questionnaire to assess breast cancer knowledge and barriers to screening in Kenya: Psychometric assessment of the BCAM. BMC health services research, 17(1), 110.

Winardi, B., & Novianty, A. (2018). Knowledge and Attitude Have No Correlation with Implementation of Breast Self Examination (BSE). Folia Medica Indonesiana, 54(3), 218-221.

World Health Organization. (2016). Nurse educator core competencies. World Health Organization, 1–30. Retrieved from:

Yüksel, S., Uğraş, G. A., Cavdar, I., Bozdoğan, A., Gürdal, S. Ö., Akyolcu, N., & Özmen, V. (2017). A risk assessment comparison of breast cancer and factors affected to risk perception of women in turkey: A cross-sectional study. Iranian journal of public health, 46(3), 308.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Malahayati International Journal of Nursing and Health Science

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

If this paper is accepted for publication, you will be asked to pay an Article Publication Fee to cover publications costs (1000.000 IDR) and for promotional purposes, the author from abroad are free.

Please fill up at

Decision Letter of The rector-University of Malahayati No. 1356.10.411.07.19